MIDI 1.0 Spec & Literaturverzeichnis

Status Data Byte(s) Description

D7----D0 D7----D0

Channel Voice Messages

1000cccc 0nnnnnnn 0vvvvvvv Note Off event.

This message is sent when a note is released (ended).

(nnnnnnn) is the note number.

(vvvvvvv) is the velocity.

1001cccc 0nnnnnnn 0vvvvvvv Note On event.

This message is sent when a note is depressed (start).

(nnnnnnn) is the note number.

(vvvvvvv) is the velocity.

1010cccc 0nnnnnnn 0vvvvvvv Polyphonic Key Pressure(Aftert.)

This message is sent when the pressure (velocity) of a previouslytriggered note changes.

(nnnnnnn) is the note number.

(vvvvvvv) is the new velocity.

1011cccc 0ccccccc 0vvvvvvv Control Change.

This message is sent when a controller value changes. Controllers include devicessuch as pedals and levers. Certain controller numbers are reserved for specific purposes. See Channel Mode Messages.

(ccccccc) is the controller number.

(vvvvvvv) is the new value.

1100cccc 0ppppppp Program Change.

This message sent when the patch number changes.

(ppppppp) is the new program number.

1101nnnn 0ccccccc ChannelPressure(Aftert)

This message is sent when the channel pressure changes. Some velocity-sensing keyboards do not support polyphonic after-touch. Use thismessage to send the single greatest velocity(of all te current depressed keys).

(ccccccc) is the pressure value.

1110nnnn 0lllllll Pitch Wheel Change.


This message is sent to indicate a change in the pitch wheel. The pitch wheel is measured by a fourteen bit value. Center (no pitch change) is 2000H. Sensitivity is a function of the transmitter.

(llllll) are the least significant 7 bits.

(mmmmmm) are the most significant 7 bits.

Channel Mode Messages (See also Control Change, above)


1011nnnn 0ccccccc 0vvvvvvv Channel Mode Messages.

This the same code as the Control Change (above), but implements Mode control by using reserved controllernumbers.

The numbers are:

Local Control.

When Local Control is Off, all devices on a given channel will respond only to data received over MIDI. Played data, etc. will be ignored. Local Control On restores the functions of the normal controllers.

c = 122, v = 0: Local Control Off

c = 122, v = 127: Local Control On

All Notes Off.

When an All Notes Off is received, all oscillators will turn off.

c = 123, v = 0: All Notes Of

c = 124, v = 0: Omni Mode Off

c = 125, v = 0: Omni Mode On

c = 126, v = M: Mono Mode On (Poly Off) where M is the number of channels (Omni Off) or 0 (Omni On)

c = 127, v = 0: Poly Mode On (Mono Off) (Note: These four messages also cause All Notes Off)

System Common Messages


11110000 0iiiiiii 0ddddddd System Exclusive.

This message makes up for all that MIDI doesn't support.

(iiiiiii) is a seven bit Manufacturer's I.D. code. If the

0ddddddd synthesizer recognizes the I.D. code as 11110111 its own, it will listen to the rest of the message (ddddddd). Otherwise, the message will be ignored. System Exclusive is used to send bulk dumps such as patch parameters and other non-spec data. (Note: Real-Time messages ONLY may be interleaved with a System Exclusive.)

11110010 0lllllll 0mmmmmmm Song Position Pointer.

This is an internal 14 bit register that holds the number of MIDI beats (1 beat= six MIDI clocks) since the start of the song. l is the LSB, m the MSB.

11110011 0sssssss Song Select.

The Song Select specifies which sequence or song is to be played.

11110100 Undefined.

11110101 Undefined.

11110110 Tune Request.

Upon receiving a Tune Request, all analog sythesizers should tune their oscillators.

11110111 End of Exclusive.

Used to terminate a System Exclusive dump (see above).

System Real-Time Messages

11111000 Timing Clock.

Sent 24 times per quarter note when synchronization is required.

11111001 Undefined.

11111010 Start.

Start the current sequence playing. (This message will be followed with Timing Clocks).

11111011 Continue

Continue at the point the sequence was Stopped.

11111100 Stop.

Stop the current sequence.

11111101 Undefined.

11111110 Active Sensing.

Use of this message is optional. When initially sent, the receiver will expect to receive another Active Sensing message each 300ms (max), or it will be assume that the connection has been terminated. At termination, the receiver will turn off (all voices and return to normal (nonactive sensing) operation.

11111111 Reset.

Reset all receivers in the system to power-up status. This should be used sparingly, preferably under manual control. In particular, it should not be sent on power-up.

Weitere Infos:

International Midi Association5316 West 57th Street

Los Angeles, CA 90056

(415) 321-MIDI

The 1.0 spec is technically identical to the .06 spec, but the description has been re-written.

Since the spec has been offically approved, there shouldn't be any

problem with posting this summary of the .06 spec:


[This document is Dave Oppenheim's current version of the MIDI filespecification, as sent to those who have participated in its development. The consensus seems to be to submit this to the MIDI Manufacturers' Association as version 1.0. I apologize for any loss of clarity that might have occurred in the conversion from a Microsoft Word document to this pure text file. I have removed some of the discussion about recent changes to the specification in order to keep the file size reasonable.--Doug Wyatt]


Steve De Furia & Joe Scacciaferro,
Anmerkung:"Dieses Buch ist scheinbar die
"MIDI Programmer's Handbook Bibel fuer MIDI"
M&T Books
ISBN 1-55851-068-0
P.Gorges und A.Merck
Muenchen, 1989, GC Carstensen Verlag
ISBN 3-90802026-3-1
[1] Siegfried Just: <MIDITALK - Standard MIDI-Files>. ST-Computer 12/90.
Heim-Verlag, S. 144ff,
[2] Michael Cxelperger: <Introducing Standard MIDI File>. Electronic Musican,
April 1989, S. 50ff
[3] <Standard-MIDI-File in C / Babylon entschlsselt>. 68000er ST-magazin
10/91 - 11/91. Markt & Technik.
[4] Kai Schwirzke: <MIDI macht die Musik - Standard MIDI-File-Format>. c't -
magazin fr computer technik 07/93, S.232ff Heise Verlag
The most-up-to-date printed specs for General MIDI, MIDI, and the MIDI
file format can also be obtained for a few bucks from:
International MIDI Association
23634 Emelita Street
Woodland Hills, California 91367 USA
Title: Computer music in C / Phil Winsor & Gene DeLisa.
Publisher: Blue Ridge Summit, PA : TAB Books (Windcrest label), c1991.
Subjects: Computer sound processing.
Computer composition.
C (Computer program language)
Midi programming
ISBN: 0-8306-3637-4 (p) : $22.95
It has a C source disk for the PC available for $25.
Title: Mind over MIDI / edited by Dominic Milano by the editors of Keyboard magazine.
Publisher: Milwaukee, WI : H. Leonard Books, c1987.
Series Name: The Keyboard magazine basic library
Other Series Names: Keyboard synthesizer library.
Subjects: MIDI (Standard)
Computer sound processing.
ISBN: 0-88188-551-7 (pbk.) : $12.95
The book consists mostly of reprints of KEYBOARD magazine articles from the early-mid '80s plus several appendixes containing the MIDI 1.0 specification, a list of references, a glossary, etc.
Title: MIDI- und sound-buch zum Atari ST. English
Title: MIDI and sound book for the Atari ST / Bernd Enders and Wolfgang Klemme.
Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M & T Pub., c1989.
Subjects: Computer music--Instruction and study.
Computer sound processing.
MIDI (Standard)
Atari ST computers--Programming.
ISBN: 1-55851-042-7 : $17.95
Atari ST Introduction to MIDI Programming
Len Dorfman and Dennis Young
ISBN 0-916439-77-1
Bantam Books,Inc.
666 5th Avenue
New York,New York
Title: Music through MIDI : using MIDI to create your own electronic music system / Michael Boom.
Publisher: Redmond, Wash. : Microsoft Press, c1987.
Subjects: MIDI (Standard)
Subjects: Musical instruments, Electronic.
Subjects: Electronic music--Instruction and study.
Subjects: Computer sound processing.
ISBN: 1-55615-026-1 (pbk.) : $19.95
Title: The MIDI drummer : by a drummer for a drummer-- / by David Crigger.
Publisher: Newbury Park, CA : Alexander Pub., c1987.
Subjects: Electronic percussion instruments--Instruction and study.
MIDI (Standard)
Title: MIDI for musicians / by Craig Anderton.
Publisher: New York : Amsco Publications, c1986.
Subjects: MIDI (Standard)
Computer sound processing.
ISBN: 0-8256-1050-8 (pbk.)
ISBN: 0-8256-2214-X (pbk. : cover)
Title: The MIDI manual / David Miles Huber.
Publisher: Carmel, Ind., USA : Howard W. Sams, c1991.
ISBN: 0-672-22757-6, 250pp.
Title: The MIDI programmer's handbook / Steve De Furia and Joe Scacciaferro, Ferro Technologies.
Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Pub., c1989.
ISBN: 1-55851-068-0, 250 pp. Paperback. $24.95 Mix Bookshelf part # 3539C
*** This book is now out of print ***
Title: C Programming for MIDI / Jim Conger.
Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Books, 1989.
501 Galveston Drive Redwood City, CA 94063
Subjects: MIDI, C, sequencing
This book shows how to use the basic features of an MPU-401 interface.
Includes a disk with MS-DOS code.
Title: MIDI sequencing in C / Jim Conger.
Publisher: Redwood City, Calif. : M&T Books, 1989. 501 Galveston Drive Redwood City, CA 94063
Subjects: MIDI (Standard)
C (Computer program language)
Sequential processing (Computer science)
ISBN: 1-55851-045-1 (book) : $24.95
ISBN: 1-55851-047-8 (disk) : $20.00
ISBN: 1-55851-046-X (set) : $39.95This book continues where the provious one lefts off.
Die offiziziellen Spezifikationen zu MIDI gibt es mittlerweile bei M3C Systemtechnik in Berlin (in Englisch). Die Dokumente sind vergleichbar den DIN Blaettern zu den einzelnen DIN Vorschriften. Sehr technisch ohne zusaetzliche Erlaeuterungen, englisch.
M3C Systemtechnik
GrossbeerenstraBe 51
10965 Berlin
MIDI 1.0 Spec+Addenda...79.- DM
General MIDI Spec...25.- DM
Standard MIDI File Spec...25.- DM
MIDI Machine Control Spec...58.- DM
MIDI Show Control Spec...25.- DM
Jeweils (etwa) DIN A4 , erster Titel geheftet, die anderen geklammert.
Die Literaturangaben sind rein subjektiv zusammengestellt und ohne Gewähr !

zurück zur Übersicht